Hashkafa (Hebrew: השקפה; lit. “overview”) means to survey. But to take a survey
of what? The grand design underlying reality, as described in the
Torah. Some of the questions that hashkafa might answer:
- What is existence? (Ontology)
- What does it mean to exist? What are the prime entities that exists and what is the relationship (plan) that links these entities?
- What is the greatest Being, the source of all other being?
- How do we know that the Torah’s description of the universe — created with plan and purpose — is true? (Epistemology). For one method, see Mount Sinai
- Who is G-d? What has he allowed us to understand about His essence?
- Why did He create the universe?
- What is the relationship between Torah and Science?
- Why did He create Man?
- What is the psychological structure of man?
- What is evil? Why is there evil?
- Why must man suffer pain?
- What does God want of us? Why?
- What is a Jew ( not halachicly) but from the point of view of hashkafa? Why is Israel the chosen nation? What does that mean?
- Why was Adam HaRishon (the first man) not a Jew?
- Why is there a Messianic era?
- What is Olam Haba (the world to come)?